He called on the government to withdraw the law “by the end of the month,” adding that the withdrawal agreement contained “a number of mechanisms and remedies to remedy violations of the legal obligations contained in the text – which the European Union will not hesitate to use.” There are therefore many problems with the extension of the power to depart from the jurisprudence maintained in previous courts. First, it creates uncertainty. Preliminary proceedings operate under the previous system, and the doctrine does not just mean that the courts take their own previous decisions seriously; it also relies on the hierarchy of courts, the leading courts following the decisions of the higher courts (see p.B. Willers/Joyce (No. 2)  UKSC 44). Trial judges are not in the habit of departing from public authorities: while even trial courts may depart from the case law maintained, any existing authority of this type can be debated and challenged. The perspective would increase the complexity and length of trials and also create uncertainty for trial parties, consumers, businesses, workers, employers and government, as the results would be unpredictable. On the issue of the Irish border, there is a protocol on Northern Ireland (the “backstop”) which is attached to the agreement and establishes a position of withdrawal which will only come into force in the absence of effective alternative provisions before the expiry of the transition period. In this case, the UK will eclipse the EU`s common external tariff and Northern Ireland will stick to aspects of the internal market until such an event is carried out. Neither party can unilaterally withdraw from this customs union.
The aim of this backstop agreement is to avoid a “hard” border in Ireland, where customs controls are needed.  The 599-page withdrawal agreement covers the following key areas: The 2019 revisions also adapted elements of the political statement and replaced the word “appropriate” with “appropriate” with respect to labour standards. According to Sam Lowe, a trade fellow at the Centre for European Reform, the amendment excludes labour standards from dispute resolution mechanisms.  In addition, the Equal Competition Mechanism has been postponed from the legally binding withdrawal agreement to the political declaration, and the line of the political statement that “the United Kingdom will consider taking into account alignment with trade union rules in the relevant areas” has been removed.  Given the time remaining several days before the end of the transitional period for Brexit, it is still not certain that there will be a new agreement between Britain and the EU at its end.